BULLOUGH’S ESSAY, “Psychical Distance as a. Factor in given some attention to psychical distance; N1nd Essays Edward Bullough (Stanford, California. , , et passim. 6 Edward Bullough, ‘Psychical Distance’ as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle,”. The British Journal of Psychology, V (June. The concept of “physical distance” developed by Edward Bullough in his well- known article1has come to be generally accepted as an aesthetic principle.
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But, as a matter of fact, the ‘assumption’ upon which the imaginative emotional reaction is based is not necessarily the condition, but often the consequence, of distance; that is to say, the converse of the reason usually stated would then be true: The consequence of a loss of Distance through one or other cause is familiar: Art has with equal vigour been declared alternately ‘idealistic’ and ‘realistic,’ ‘sensual’ and ‘spiritual,’ ‘individualistic’ and ‘typical.
The same qualification applies to the artist. George Dickie – – Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 2: Kates – – Tulane Studies in Philosophy Hence the statement of so many artists that artistic formulation was to them a kind of catharsis, a means of ridding themselves of feelings and ideas the acuteness of which they felt almost as a kind of obsession. This difference, so well known as to be almost trivial, is generally explained by reference to the knowledge that the characters and situations are ‘unreal,’ imaginary.
Several studies have been made on the definition and validity of ‘Psychical Distance’. Note that Bullough’s texts and translations of other authors are collected after the chronological presentation. Many pictures, plays and poems had, as a matter of fact, rather an expository or illustrating significance – as for instance much ecclesiastical Art – or distabce force of a direct practical appeal – as the invectives of many satires or comedies – which seem to us nowadays irreconcilable with their aesthetic claims.
The first was noticed already by Aristotle in his Poetics ; the second has played a great part in the history of painting in the form of perspective; the distinction between these two kinds of distance assumes special importance theoretically in the differentiation between sculpture in the round, and relief-sculpture.
In Defence of Psychical Distance. This difference in the Distance-limit between artists and the public has been the source of edqard misunderstanding and injustice.
Election,” Cambridge University Reporter 63, no. Index Outline Category Portal. Psychical Distance and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Wilderness.
Edward Bullough’s Concept of ‘Psychical Distance’
Such works have consequently profited greatly by lapse of time and have reached the level of art only with the help of temporal distance, edwarf others, on the contrary, often for the same reason have suffered a loss of distance, through over -distancing. This page was last edited on 27 Novemberat Views Read Edit View history.
Psgchical a similar manner temporal remoteness produces Distance, and objects removed from us in point of time are ipso facto distanced to an extent which was impossible for their contemporaries. Request removal from index. Again, edard marks one of the most important steps in the process of artistic creation and serves as a distinguishing feature of what is common so loosely described as the ‘artistic temperament.
In Bullough married Enrichetta Angelica Marchetti daughter of the actor Eleonora Dusewith whom he would have a son and a daughter. In short, Distance may be said to be variable both according to the distancing power of the individual, and according to the character pzychical the object. The individual tends, as I just stated, to under-distance rather than to lose Distance by over-distancing.
Naoko Korita, Edward Bullough’s Concept of ‘Psychical Distance’ – PhilPapers
The lectures are first announced, to begin on 14 Octoberin the Cambridge University Reporter 37, no. Psychical distance Bullough capitalises the words is that which, in certain situations, “appears to lie between our own self and its affections, using the latter term in its broadest sense as anything which affects our being”.
Apart from the physical annoyance and remoter forms of discomfort such as delays, it is apt to produce feelings of peculiar psychicap, fears of invisible dangers, strains of watching and listening for distant and unlocalised signals.
Thus, in the fog, the transformation by Distance is produced in the first instance by putting the phenomenon, so to speak, out of gear with our practical, actual self; by allowing it to stand outside the context of our personal needs and ends – in short, by looking at it ‘objectively,’ as it has often been called, by permitting only such reactions on our part as emphasise the ‘objective’ features of the experience, and by interpreting even our ‘subjective’ affections not as modes of our being but rather as characteristics of the phenomenon.
In languages, Bullough was a pschical teacher who published little. Closely related, in fact a presupposition to the ‘antimony,’ is the variability of Distance. It is a difference of outlook, due – if such a metaphor is permissible – to the insertion of distance.
“Psychical Distance” (Edward Bullough)
Suppose a man, who believes that he has cause to be jealous about his wife, witnesses a performance of ‘Othello. No categories specified categorize this paper. It has a negativeinhibitory aspect – the cutting-out of the practical sides of things and of our practical attitude to them – and a positive side – the elaboration of the experience on the new basis created by the inhibitory action of Distance.
In theory, therefore, not only the usual subjects of Art, but even the most personal affections, whether ideas, percepts or emotions, can be sufficiently distanced to be aesthetically appreciable.
It is on account of the same difficulty that the expert and the professional critic makes a bad audience, since their expertness and critical professionalism are practical activities, involving their concrete personality and constantly endangering their Distance.
And here one may remark that not only do persons differ from each other in their habitual measure of distance, but that the same individual differs in his ability to maintain it in the face of different objects and of different arts. In their interplay they afford one of the most extensive explanations for varieties of aesthetic experience, since loss of distance, whether due to the one or the other, means loss of aesthetic appreciation.
His personal implication in the event renders it impossible for him to formulate and present it in such a way as to make others, like himself, feel all the meaning and fullness which it possesses for him.